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Controversy, the Called and the Message of the Kingdom


  1. Nicodemus questioned Jesus during the Passover in Jerusalem
  2. Jesus returned to Galilee through Samaria
  3. Samaritan woman at the well (Sychar in Samaria)
  4. John is imprisoned by Herod (in Machaerus)
  5. Received in synagogues in Galilee  autumn
  6. Capernaum royal official’s son healed (Galilee)
  7. First rejection in Nazareth 4:16-30
  8. Moved to Capernaum (20 miles from Nazareth)
  9. Healed Peter’s mother-in-law (Capernaum)
  10. Many healed as whole town gathered at the door
  11. First preaching tour in Galilee (about 4 months)
  12. Called Matthew also named Levi (Capernaum)


  1. Jesus returns to Jerusalem (second Passover) – April AD 28
  2. Healed lame man causing Sabbath controversy John 5:2-9
  3. Leaders sought to kill Jesus (Jerusalem) John 5:10-18
  4. Jesus proclaiming equality with God (Jerusalem) John 5:19-47
  5. Jesus returns to Galilee – May
  6. Picking grain causing Sabbath controversy (Galilee) Matthew 12:1-8, Mark 2:23-28, Luke 6:1-5 – August
  7. Healed withered hand causing Sabbath controversy Matthew 12:9-14, Mark 3:1-6, Luke 6:6-11
  8. Spent night in prayer (mountain near the sea) Luke 6:12
  9. Ordained the 12 apostles Matthew 5:1, Mark 3:13-19, Luke 6:13-16 – August
  10. Sermon on the Mount (Galilean mountain) Matthew 5:2-7:27, Luke 6:20-49

A. Historical significance of the Sabbath.

586BC – The siege of Jerusalem by the Babylonians

Ezekiel 20:23-24 Nevertheless I swore to them in the wilderness that I would disperse them among the nations and scatter them in other lands,  because they did not carry out my ordinances, but rejected my statutes and desecrated my sabbaths, having eyes only for the idols of their ancestors.

B. Sabbath Controversies

  • The intention of the sabbath from Gods perspective was to create a day or rest for society.
  • Rest your body. Fill your soul. Like Christmas day as a kid, the city goes on complete shutdown.
  • Jesus is bringing the issue to the surface. He desires mercy not a sacrifice. The religious leaders used sabbath laws to control and manipulate society.

Sabbath Controversy #1 John 5:2-9. The man at the pool of Bethesda

  • controversial issue 1: Jesus heals a man on the sabbath (can’t heal on the sabbath).
  • controversial issue 2: The healed man picks up his mat and walks as instructed by Jesus. (can’t carry things “work” on the sabbath).
  • v5 “Do you wish to get well?”
  • v14 “Behold, you have become well; do not sin anymore, so that nothing worse happens to you.”

Jesus explains his relationship with the father to the religious leaders.

Read John 5:17-30

  1. Jesus declares he is God by declaring God is his Father and that he works with his father.

    v17 But He answered them, “My Father is working until now, and I Myself am working.”

  2. Jesus clarifies the authority structure of the Trinity.

    v19 “Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of Himself, unless it is something He sees the Father doing; for whatever the Father does, these things the Son also does in like manner.

  3. All judgement has been given to Jesus. His evaluation of our lives will be what is true when we stand before him.

    22 For not even the Father judges anyone, but He has given all judgment to the Son, 23 so that all will honor the Son even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him.

  4. Jesus has the authority to resurrect and judge everyone at the sound of his voice.

    27and He gave Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man. 28 Do not marvel at this; for an hour is coming, in which all who are in the tombs will hear His voice, 29 and will come forth; those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of life, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment.

In conclusion.

  • Jesus point is that he works with his father and has the authority to define and interpret the sabbath.

V20 For the Father loves the Son, and shows Him all things that He Himself is doing;

Sabbath Controversy #2 Matthew 12:1-8 Jesus picks grain with his disciples

  • controversial issue: Picking grain and rubbing it their hands (threshing wheat)
  • Deuteronomy 23:24-25 It was lawful to walk through a field and have your fill of wheat, grain or grapes. But you couldn’t harvest it or take any with you.
  • Jesus refers to 1 Samuel 21. David eats the show bread, why didn’t scripture condemn him?

Jesus is making correlation between himself and David.

  • David was being rejecting by Israel’s evil leadership and when death was on the line he ate the bread consecrated to the priests.
  • Jesus is now being rejected by Israel’s evil leadership and they want to condemn him for picking and threshing grain heads.
  • Human need is more important than ceremonial laws. Especially if and death is on the line.
  • If the ceremonial laws crush the people, then what is the point? Don’t use the sabbath to crush and condemn people.
  • Condemnation destroys lives. Jesus wants mercy.

Matthew 12:7-8 But if you had known what this means, “I desire mercy and not sacrifice,” you would not have
condemned the guiltless. 8For the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.

Sabbath Controversy #3 Matthew 12:9-14 Jesus heals the withered hand

  • controversial issue: Jesus heals a man on the sabbath (can’t heal on the sabbath).
  • The religious leaders ask Jesus if it is lawful to heal on the sabbath.
  • Jesus uses an analogy of a man with a sheep. Does he leave the sheep in the pit until the sabbath is over?

Sabbath controversy conclusion

  • Jesus desires mercy for people. He wants those that have power and authority to be merciful and not crush people to show off power. Workplace, home, children, marriages.
  • IE: Creating and abiding the rules in the family dynamic. Rules are meant to protect and create safe boundaries for those we love. This is to create safe boundries to walk in and understand the power of our freedoms. If we use the rules as the source of power to crush our children or our spouse with this authority, then rules have lost their initial purpose and serve as a structure of abuse and poor leadership. Authority comes from relationship not restrictions.

Isaiah 42:1-3 “Behold, My Servant, whom I uphold; My chosen one in whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit upon Him;He will bring forth justice to the nations.2 “He will not cry out or raise His voice, Nor make His voice heard in the street.3 “A bruised reed He will not break And a dimly burning wick He will not extinguish;

C. Jesus calls the 12 Apostles

Luke 6:12 It was at this time that He went off to the mountain to pray, and He spent the whole night in prayer to God.

The next day Jesus is going to:

  • Chose the 12 apostles
  • Preach the his most important sermon
  • Perform a significant miracle (heals centurion slave).

The Twelve were the first officially authorized representatives of Jesus. Jesus was commissioned to act for God, so the apostles were to act for Jesus. John 20:21

Mark 3:13 And He went up on the mountain and *summoned those whom He Himself wanted, and they came to Him. And He appointed twelve, so that they would be with Him and that He could send them out to preach, 15 and to have authority to cast out the demons.

  • Summoned those whom he wanted
  • To be with him Matthew 22:37-38, 2 Corinthians 5:18-20
  • To preach the gospel (to know the word and proclaim it) Preach what? What is the kingdom?
  • To cast out demons/miracles.

Mark. 16:17-18 Signs and wonders follow those who first believe.

D. Jesus teaches his disciples kingdom lifestyle

Jesus reveals the true intention of the Law and the way of the Kingdom

  • Jesus and the Fellowship of the Ring.
  • John the Baptist preached Jesus new covenant Ministry Isaiah 40:3, Jesus explains how Isaiah 40:3 looks in Sermon on the mount.
  • Jesus uses the sermon on the mount to teach his disciples how to preach and declare the kingdom. Matthew 5:19

The 8 beatitudes

  • Blessed are the poor in spirit
    To be poor in spirit is to recognize all that is available in the glory of God and soberly evaluate how little we are walking in, in comparison to ALL that is available. We will always desperately need Jesus.
  • Blessed are those who mourn
    Spiritual mourning is seeing the gap and being bothered enough, that we determine we are going to do something about it. We don’t make excuses for our lack of zeal and come up with unbiblical reasons why we need to relax and draw back from pressing in. Instead, we push in harder and deeper we continue to Ask, Seek and Knock.
  • Blessed are the meek
    The meek are those who recognize that all they have and own are from God and they use it for God. Their time, their money and energy. This is in essence, loving the lord with all of our heart, mind, soul and strength. Every opportunity, blessing, and position comes from him, It’s not mine, it’s his.
    The meek resist criticism in all circumstances.
  • Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness
    We view righteousness to the spirit like food to the body. When we view righteousness as a requirement to spiritual nourishment we will hunt for, defend an protect it.
  • Blessed are the merciful
    Being merciful requires our hearts to be alert at all moments. Mercy is not a one-off idea of being nice to people who are unfortunate. Mercy is how we treat people when they have wronged us or when they make mistakes that are costly. In the small parts of life. We must be eager to be merciful.

    • The story of closing the church and people not showing up to do it.
    • John and James want to call fire down from heaven. Luke 9:51-56
  • Blessed are the pure in heart
    To be pure in heart is to be pure in thought word and deed. Our secret motives and outward communication must come from the spirit. Purity gives us spiritual clarity.
  • Blessed are the peacemakers
    Peacemakers find every means necessary to build a bridge between conflicting parties and a critical spirit. A peacemaker does not allow the momentum of slander pass from ear to ear but does everything to snuff out the flame of criticism by introducing reconciliation to all situations. We do not all the momentum of negativity and criticism of others be carried through our mouth. It stops here! with me.
  • Blessed are they who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness,
    As you embrace these attitudes you will be challenged and tested in each one and often. Every time we respond correctly we are working out that spiritual muscle to get stronger and stronger. Our obedience will be tried and tested.

To the degree we participate with the 8 beatitudes we become salt and light.

Matthew 5:13 “You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men.

  • Jesus is teaching his disciples to do the second part of their calling which is to preach the gospel.

Matthew 5:19Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

  • Jesus uses the rest of the sermon to give us practical instances in which we can grow in the beatitudes.
  • Most of the New Testament is a collection of the principles and instruction found in the sermon on the mount, but taught in expanded form. For instance the book of James uses the truths of the sermon on the mount but communicates them through the poetic language of proverbs.

The six negatives to reject are in Matthew 5

  • Anger (5:21-26) slander, light criticism, whispering and murder
  • Immorality (5:27-30)
  • Disregarding the sanctity of marriage (5:31-32)
  • Not keeping our commitments (5:33-37)
  • Retaliating (5:38-42) self defense, enemies etc
  • Being passive in our love to our enemies (5:43-47).

The Five positives are to embrace in Matthew 6

  • Serve/charitable deeds (6:1-4, 19-21)
  • Give (6:1-4, 19-21)
  • Prayer (6:5-13)
  • Bless our adversaries (fullness of forgiveness, 6:14-15; 5:44)
  • Fasting (6:16-18).

Sermon Conclusion

  • Jesus ends the sermon exhorting the disciples not worry about position, belongings, status or provision. Worry produces anxiety and shifts our inner narrative with God from God centered to me centered. He his disciples and us to have a singular eye.
  • Jesus describes true and false teachers and believers and how to identify them.

Studies in the life of Christ Part 6 readings. Luke 7, Matthew 13

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